Elliptocytosis

Hereditary Elliptocytosis

Hereditary Elliptocytosis (HE), also known as ovalocytosis, is a disorder of the red cell membrane inherited usually in an autosomal dominant pattern. In this condition, the majority of cells have an elliptical shape. The osmotic fragility is normal. HE is due to defects in either the structure or quantity of the cytoskeletal proteins responsible for maintaining the biconcave morphology of RBCs. Mutations […]

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Spherocytosis

autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) is a disorder of the red cell membrane inherited usually in an autosomal dominant pattern. In this condition, the red cells are more rigid and fragile than normal. They are spherocytic, appearing small, deeply stained on blood smears, and have osmotic fragility. Spherocytes are found in all hemolytic anemias to some degree. Hereditary spherocytosis and autoimmune hemolytic […]

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Hemolytic Anemias

autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Introduction: Red blood cells (RBCs) are made in the bone marrow—a sponge-like tissue inside the bones. They live for about 120 days in the bloodstream and then die. Hemolysis involves premature destruction and hence a shortened RBCs life span (< 120 days). When RBCs die, the body’s bone marrow makes more blood cells to replace them. However, in hemolytic anemias, the bone […]

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Pure Red Cell Aplasia

pure-red-cell-aplasia

Background: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes. Erythroblasts are virtually absent in bone marrow; however, WBC and platelet production is normal. The anemia due to PRCA is usually normocytic but can be macrocytic. The characteristics of PRCA include severe anemia, a reticulocyte count <1%, and the presence […]

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Aplastic Anemia

aplastic anemia bone marrow biopsy

Aplastic anemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged. This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types (pancytopenia): red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leucopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). Aplastic refers to the inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells. Aetiology: Congenital: The […]

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Megaloblastic Anemias

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Introduction: Megaloblastic anemias are a group of disorders characterized by reduced DNA synthesis (not just in red cell series) associated with pathognomonic morphological changes. When DNA synthesis is impaired, the cell cycle cannot progress from the G2 growth stage to the mitosis (M) stage. This leads to continuing cell growth without division, which presents as macrocytosis. In other words, megaloblastic anemia […]

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

Pallor

  Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia, and it occurs when your body doesn’t have enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. When there isn’t enough iron in your bloodstream, the rest of your body can’t get the amount of oxygen it needs. Iron is a mineral. Most of the iron in the body […]

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Anemias-General Approach

Tiredness

Anemias-General Approach: Anemia is a condition in which you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin (Hb) to carry adequate oxygen to the body’s tissues. Anemia is not a diagnosis; it is a manifestation of an underlying disorder. Thus, even mild, asymptomatic anemia should be investigated so that the primary problem can be diagnosed and treated. When anemia […]

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Blood Cells

blood cells

Blood cells begin their life in the bone marrow as stem cells, and they mature into three main types of cells Red blood cells (RBCs), White blood cells (WBCs), and Platelets. The average human adult has more than 5 litres of blood in his or her body. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to living cells and takes away their waste […]

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Scope of hematology

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In this article, we will discuss the scope of hematology, covering key aspects, advancements, and its significance in the realm of healthcare. Hematology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the study of blood, blood-forming tissues, and blood-related disorders ranging from anemia to blood cancer. This field plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various […]

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