Surgery and Hemostasis
Blood coagulation exists to halt excessive blood loss. It is paradoxical that surgery and trauma simultaneously represent major risk factors for both hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. Kearon and Hirsh estimated that surgery and trauma increase the baseline risk of thrombosis up to a hundred-fold, whereas patients with mild hemophilia who have never bled from stresses of everyday life may bleed vigorously following surgical procedures.
Lawson, Janice W., Kitchens, Craig S. Surgery and hemostasis: Current Opinion in Hematology https://journals.lww.com/co-hematology/Fulltext/2015/09000/Surgery_and_hemostasis.5.aspx
Kearon C, Hirsh J. Management of anticoagulation before and after elective surgery. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:1506–1511.
Kitchens CS. Occult hemophilia. Johns Hopkins Med J 1980; 146:255–259.
Kitchens CS, Lawson JW Surgery and hemostasis. In: Kitchens CS, Kessler CM, Konkle BA, editors. Consultative Hemostasis and Thrombosis, chapter 36, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2013. pp. 651–672.