Checkpoint Inhibitors

An important part of the immune system is its ability to tell between normal cells in the body and those it sees as “foreign”. This lets the immune system attack the foreign cells while leaving the normal cells alone. Unfortunately, immune system doesn’t always recognize cancer as a threat. Immune system uses “checkpoints” – molecules on certain immune cells that need […]

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Cold Agglutinin Disease

Cold Agglutinin Disease

Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare disorder affecting 15% of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The disease is defined by the presence of cold agglutinins (autoantibodies which are active at temperatures below 30°C). Cold agglutinins cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) at low temperatures. Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) occurs more frequently after the age of 55. Clinical […]

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Cryoglobulinemia

cryoglobulinemia

Cryoglobulins are single or mixed immunoglobulins which precipitate when they are exposed to cold and dissolve when warmed. They may be present in small quantities in the blood of some healthy people but are most frequently associated with abnormal protein production in a variety of diseases and conditions. Precipitated cryoglobulins can slow the flow of blood and block small blood vessels. This should […]

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