Principles of Cancer Therapy

Cancer Therapy

Curing cancer requires eliminating all cancer cells. The major modalities of therapy are: Surgery (for local and local-regional disease): Surgery is the removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue during an operation. A doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery is called a surgical oncologist. Surgery is the oldest type of cancer therapy and remains an effective treatment for many types […]






Read more

Thrombotic Disorders

Hematologists are increasingly involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with venous and arterial thrombotic disorders. There have been major advances in recent years in our understanding of the central role of hypercoagulability in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. This has led to new approaches to the diagnosis of patients at risk for thrombosis and the development of more rational […]






Read more

Stem Cell Transplantation

Stem Cell Transplantation

Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Commonly, stem cells come from two main sources: Embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development (embryonic stem cells) and adult tissue (adult stem cells). Both types are generally characterised by their potency, or potential to differentiate into different cell types (such […]






Read more

Qualitative Platelet Disorders

Qualitative Platelet Disorders

Qualitative platelet disorders are suggested by a prolonged bleeding time (abnormal platelet function screen) or clinical evidence of bleeding in the setting of a normal platelet count and coagulation studies. They are most commonly acquired, but can be inherited. Platelet function testing with light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), or a template bleeding time may reveal abnormalities […]






Read more

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia

The hemostatic system consists of platelets, coagulation factors, and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. The platelets arise from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood as disc-shaped anucleate particles for 7-10 days. About one third are always transiently sequestered in the spleen. Platelets are eventually destroyed by apoptosis, a process independent […]






Read more

Multiple Myeloma

Multiple Myeloma

First described in 1848, multiple myeloma (MM), also known as plasma cell myeloma, is characterized by a proliferation of malignant plasma cells and a subsequent overproduction of monoclonal paraprotein (M protein). There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms. These diseases are all associated with a monoclonal (or myeloma) protein (M protein). They include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), […]






Read more

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) is a group of diverse bone marrow disorders sometimes referred to as preleukemia, in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS affects hematopoiesis at the stem cell level, as indicated by cytogenetic abnormalities, molecular mutations, and morphologic and physiologic abnormalities in maturation and differentiation of one or more of the hematopoietic cell lines. […]






Read more

Checkpoint Inhibitors

An important part of the immune system is its ability to tell between normal cells in the body and those it sees as “foreign”. This lets the immune system attack the foreign cells while leaving the normal cells alone. Unfortunately, immune system doesn’t always recognize cancer as a threat. Immune system uses “checkpoints” – molecules on certain immune cells that need […]






Read more

Malignant Infiltration of Bone Marrow

Many cancers may infiltrate the bone marrow, most common are carcinoma of the lung, breast, prostate, colon, and thyroid. In malignant infiltration of bone marrow, the blood count may be normal although pancytopenia may occur and there may be leukoerythroblastic blood picture. Marrow aspirates may be difficult because of fibrosis and trephine biopsies should also be performed. The features of […]






Read more

Cold Agglutinin Disease

Cold Agglutinin Disease

Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare disorder affecting 15% of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The disease is defined by the presence of cold agglutinins (autoantibodies which are active at temperatures below 30°C). Cold agglutinins cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) at low temperatures. Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) occurs more frequently after the age of 55. Clinical […]






Read more
1 2 3 6