Abnormal Hemoglobins

Hemoglobinopathies

Hemoglobin is a carrier for oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues and carbon dioxide from other parts of the body to the lungs. About 70% of the body’s iron is present in the red blood cells in the form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-protein complex that gives red blood cells its red color. It is made up of […]

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Approach to Lymphocytosis

Approach to Lymphocytosis

Lymphocytosis refers to an increase of peripheral blood lymphocytes, which for adults corresponds to >4000 lymphocytes/microL in most clinical laboratories. Lymphocytopenia refers to a decrease of peripheral blood lymphocytes, which generally corresponds to <1000 lymphocytes/microL in adults. You can have a higher than normal lymphocyte count but have few, if any, symptoms. It usually occurs after an illness and is harmless […]

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Nutrition and Blood

nutrition and blood

Nutrition and Blood: Are you feeling weak or fatigued? You may be experiencing symptoms of anemia. Anemia occurs when your red blood cell (RBC) count is low. If your RBC count is low, your body has to work harder to deliver oxygen throughout your body. RBCs are the most common cells in human blood. The body produces millions each day. RBCs […]

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Systemic Mastocytosis

Urticaria Pigmentosa

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a form of mastocytosis in which mast cells accumulate in internal tissues and organs such as the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and small intestines. It is typically diagnosed in adults. Signs and symptoms vary based on which parts of the body are affected. To keep us healthy, mast cells protect our body from foreign threats, such as infections, and […]

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Erythropoiesis Stimulating Medicines

EPO

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are man-made versions of Erythropoietin (EPO), which is a hormone (chemical messenger) produced naturally by the kidneys. Erythropoietin is produced to a lesser extent by the liver. Only about 10% of erythropoietin is produced in the liver. The erythropoietin gene has been found on human chromosome 7 (band 7q21). The role of erythropoietin is to stimulate the bone […]

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Surgery and Hemostasis

Perioperative Complications

What is Hemostasis? Hemostasis is the process of how the body stops bleeding from a cut or injury. This involves forming a clot to close the hole in the blood vessel and repairing the blood vessel. When a blood vessel is injured, platelets stick together to form a plug. Proteins, called clotting factors, interact to form a fibrin mesh to […]

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Pediatric Hematology

Pediatric Hematology

Pediatric hematology has emerged as a specialized science with age-specific reference ranges that correlate with the hematopoietic, immunologic and chemical changes in a developing child. A newborn represents the culmination of developmental events from conception and implantation through organogenesis. The embryo requires red cells for the transport of maternal oxygen to permit this growth and development. Birth brings dramatic changes […]

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Amyloidosis

Introduction: Amyloidosis is the name for a group of rare, serious conditions caused by a build-up of amyloid in organs and tissues throughout the body. Amyloid is an abnormal insoluble protein that is produced in the bone marrow and can be deposited in any tissue or organ. The build-up of the amyloid proteins (deposits) can make it difficult for the […]

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New Oral Anticoagulants

Apixaban

The NOACs are new oral anticoagulants, or sometimes called non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (since they are no longer that new). Oral anticoagulants are widely used for long-term prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism. Until recently, vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, were the only available oral anticoagulants. This situation changed with the recent introduction of the […]

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Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder in which patients have autoantibodies to phospholipid-bound proteins (eg, beta2-glycoprotein I, prothrombin, annexin A5). The pathophysiology is not precisely known. Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an important recognised cause of acquired treatable thrombophilia. It is characterised by the core clinical manifestations of thrombosis in both venous and arterial circulation resulting in recurrent thrombotic […]

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