Plasmapheresis

Plasmapheresis Machine

What is Plasmapheresis? The word ‘plasmapheresis’ (meaning the withdrawal of plasma) was coined by Abel in 1914 to describe a process by which whole blood is withdrawn from the body and separated into its constitutive parts, the cells being returned to the body while the plasma is retained. Plasmapheresis is a procedure in which whole blood is taken from a […]

Read more

Blood Morphology

Blood Morphology

Blood morphology adds greatly to the value of a routine blood count. Skillful examination of a well-made blood smear constitutes the most valuable single procedure in the hematology laboratory. In spite of normal blood count figures, careful observation of blood morphology suggested previously unsuspected disorders. For example, in some cases, the finding of hypersegmented neutrophils on the blood smear was the first hematologic clue to a significant deficiency […]

Read more

PET imaging in Hematology

Positron emission tomography (PET) scans are used to produce detailed 3-dimensional images of the inside of the body. PET imaging in hematology has become a cornerstone procedure which is particularly helpful for investigating confirmed cases of cancer to determine how far cancer has spread and how well it’s responding to treatment. A PET scan can show how well certain parts of […]

Read more

Tumor Lysis Syndrome

TLS

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) refers to the metabolic disturbances that occur when large numbers of neoplastic cells are killed rapidly, leading to the release of intracellular ions and metabolic byproducts into the systemic circulation. These electrolyte and metabolic disturbances can progress to clinical toxic effects, including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death due to multiorgan failure. The tumor lysis syndrome […]

Read more

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes are symptoms that occur at sites distant from a tumor or its metastasis. They are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to a neoplasm. Recent medical advances have improved the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes. These disorders arise from tumor secretion of hormones, peptides, or cytokines or from immune cross-reactivity between malignant […]

Read more

Chemotherapeutic Agents

Chemotherapeutic Agents

The purpose of this article is to review the basic principles for the safe and effective use of various chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Introduction: The long-term understanding of cancer growth is that it is a net result of uncontrolled multiplication of cells that out paces the rate of natural cell death (apoptosis) within the tumor mass. […]

Read more

Transfusion Medicine

Transfusion Medicine

Transfusion medicine is the branch of medicine that is concerned with transfusion of blood and blood components. It encompasses issues of blood donation, immunohematology and other laboratory testing, transfusion practices, therapeutic apheresis, stem cell collections, cellular therapy, and coagulation. Laboratory management and understanding of state and federal regulations related to blood products are also a large part of the field. Blood banking is the process […]

Read more

Spleen Disorders

Spleen Anatomy

In this chapter, we will discuss a variety of spleen disorders. The spleen is located inside the abdominal cavity on the upper left side. A normal spleen weighs about 150 grams and is about 11 cm in length. Under normal circumstances, your spleen is about the size of your fist and hardly even detectable to touch during a physical examination. It […]

Read more

Hemophilia

Hemophilia-Ecchymoses

Hemophilia is a group of inherited blood disorders in which the blood does not clot properly. Hemophilia is the standard international spelling, also known as haemophilia in the UK, other translations include: hémophilie, hemofilie, hemofili, hemofilia, hämophilie, emofilia. We will use the standard international spelling for the purpose of this section. Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder in which a […]

Read more

Hemophagocytosis

Introduction: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or Hemophagocytosis is a rare but potentially fatal disease of normal but overactive histiocytes and lymphocytes that commonly appears in infancy, although it has been seen in all age groups. Hemophagocytosis involves a defect in targeted killing and the inhibitory controls of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells, resulting in excessive cytokine production and accumulation of […]

Read more
1 2 3 7