Tumor Immunology

Tumor Immunology

Tumor immunology describes the interaction between cells of the immune system with tumor cells. Understanding the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer is important for the development of new therapies for cancer treatment. Tumor Antigens: The question of whether human tumors express antigens that can be recognized by the immune system has been answered with a resounding […]

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Bone Marrow Examination

Bone Marrow Examination

Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy). Bone marrow is soft, gelatinous tissue that fills the medullary cavities, the centers of bones. The two types of bone marrow are red bone marrow, known as myeloid tissue, and yellow bone marrow, or fatty tissue. Bone marrow contains […]

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Hematologic Emergencies

The development of hematologic emergencies related to the underlying disease or as a result of complications of therapy is common in hematology practice. These hematologic emergencies can occur as an initial presentation or in a patient with an established diagnosis and are encountered in all medical care settings, ranging from primary care to the emergency department and various subspecialty environments. Therefore, it is critically […]

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CD Markers

CD45+

CD is an abbreviation for “cluster of differentiation”. CD molecules are cell surface markers which are very useful for the identification and characterization of leukocytes and the different subpopulations of leukocytes. The HLDA (Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens) workshop, which started in 1982, developed the CD nomenclature and has maintained the list of CD Markers ever since. The initial idea behind […]

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New Hematology Drugs

new drugs in hematology

During the last two decades, we have witnessed the approval of numerous new hematology drugs and a complete transformation in how we approach blood cancers. A deeper understanding of the biology of specific hematologic malignancies has exposed numerous new therapeutic targets that were quickly followed by a plethora of novel therapeutic agents. The availability of novel drugs not only continues to […]

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Plasmapheresis

Plasmapheresis Machine

What is Plasmapheresis? The word ‘plasmapheresis’ (meaning the withdrawal of plasma) was coined by Abel in 1914 to describe a process by which whole blood is withdrawn from the body and separated into its constitutive parts, the cells being returned to the body while the plasma is retained. Plasmapheresis is a procedure in which whole blood is taken from a […]

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Blood Morphology

Blood Morphology

Blood morphology adds greatly to the value of a routine blood count. Skillful examination of a well-made blood smear constitutes the most valuable single procedure in the hematology laboratory. In spite of normal blood count figures, careful observation of blood morphology suggested previously unsuspected disorders. For example, in some cases, the finding of hypersegmented neutrophils on the blood smear was the first hematologic clue to a significant deficiency […]

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PET imaging in Hematology

Positron emission tomography (PET) scans are used to produce detailed 3-dimensional images of the inside of the body. PET imaging in hematology has become a cornerstone procedure which is particularly helpful for investigating confirmed cases of cancer to determine how far cancer has spread and how well it’s responding to treatment. A PET scan can show how well certain parts of […]

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Tumor Lysis Syndrome

TLS

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) refers to the metabolic disturbances that occur when large numbers of neoplastic cells are killed rapidly, leading to the release of intracellular ions and metabolic byproducts into the systemic circulation. These electrolyte and metabolic disturbances can progress to clinical toxic effects, including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death due to multiorgan failure. The tumor lysis syndrome […]

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Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes are symptoms that occur at sites distant from a tumor or its metastasis. They are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to a neoplasm. Recent medical advances have improved the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes. These disorders arise from tumor secretion of hormones, peptides, or cytokines or from immune cross-reactivity between malignant […]

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