Leishmaniasis

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite (genus Leishmania) transmitted by the bite of a sand fly. Leishmania promastigotes are transmitted by sand flies to vertebrate hosts. The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis ranges from a self-resolving cutaneous ulcer to a mutilating mucocutaneous disease and even to a lethal systemic illness. Therapy has long been a challenge in […]






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Lymphatic Filariasis

Elephantiasis

Lymphatic Filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified lymphatic filariasis as the second leading cause of permanent and long-term disability in the world, after leprosy. Transmission is by mosquitoes. Infective larvae from the mosquito migrate to the lymphatics, where they develop into threadlike adult worms within 6 to 12 […]






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Trypanosomiasis

Sleeping Sickness

American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, affects millions of people throughout the Americas. Carlos Chagas first described this disease in 1911 when he discovered the parasite in the blood of a Brazilian child with fever, lymphadenopathy, and anemia. Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan hemoflagellate, is the parasite that causes this disease. When humans are infected, the parasite can cause acute […]






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Malaria

Malaria

Aetiology: Malaria is due to infection with specific protozoa of the Plasmodium genus. It is transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The plasmodia undergo a single sexual cycle in the mosquito and recurrent asexual cycles, with the production of sexual forms (gametocytes) in man. Clinical features: The initial incubation period of malaria is 9-11 days. The disease is […]






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Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Aetiology: Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) first appears as a transient flu-like illness. There then follows a variable period of good health which may last many years. The HIV virus has tropism for lymphocytes expressing CD4 antigen (T helper cells). As the disease progresses there is a steady decline in the number of CD4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. […]






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Infectious Mononucleosis

Aetiology: Infectious Mononucleosis (Glandular Fever) is due to infection by the Ebstein-Barr herpes Virus (EBV). Young people are mainly affected. The disease is important in hematology because of the diagnostic difficulties that can arise. Clinical features: The disease may cause non-specific malaise, fever, sore throat, headaches and lymphadenopathy (glandular fever); some cases are asymptomatic. Lymphadenopathy is almost universal, and it lasts […]






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