Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease but is of importance as the study of the condition has helped in the understanding of the phagocyte oxidase system. The inheritance is most commonly x-linked. Affected individuals suffer from recurrent infections, particularly with staphylococci. CGD is a primary immunodeficiency that affects phagocytes of the immune system and leads to recurrent […]

Read more

Lupus Erythematosus (LE) Cells

LE Cell

Lupus Erythematosus (LE) Cells are neutrophils that have engulfed lymphocyte nuclei coated with and denatured by antibody to nucleoprotein. The Lupus Erythematosus (LE) cell was so termed because of its exclusive presence in the bone marrow of 25 patients with confirmed or suspected SLE at the Mayo Clinic. The first three cases were children, the first a 9‐yr‐old with, very […]

Read more

Pelger-Huët Anomaly

Pelger-Huët anomaly is an autosomal dominant benign condition found in 1 in 6000 individuals. The characteristic leukocyte appearance was first reported in 1928 by Pelger, a Dutch hematologist, who described leukocytes with dumbbell-shaped bilobed nuclei, a reduced number of nuclear segments, and coarse clumping of the nuclear chromatin. In 1931 Huet, a Dutch pediatrician, identified it as an inherited disorder. […]

Read more

Leishmaniasis

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite (genus Leishmania) transmitted by the bite of a sand fly. The disease is present in scattered areas worldwide. Human infection is caused by 20 Leishmania species that are morphologically indistinguishable but can be differentiated by laboratory analysis. Leishmania promastigotes are transmitted by sand flies to vertebrate hosts. The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis […]

Read more

Lymphatic Filariasis

Elephantiasis

Lymphatic Filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified lymphatic filariasis as the second leading cause of permanent and long-term disability in the world, after leprosy. Transmission is by mosquitoes. Infective larvae from the mosquito migrate to the lymphatics, where they develop into threadlike adult worms within 6 to 12 […]

Read more

Trypanosomiasis

Sleeping Sickness

American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, affects millions of people throughout the Americas. Carlos Chagas first described this disease in 1911 when he discovered the parasite in the blood of a Brazilian child with fever, lymphadenopathy, and anemia. Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan hemoflagellate, is the parasite that causes this disease. When humans are infected, the parasite can cause acute […]

Read more

Malaria

Malaria

Aetiology: Malaria is due to infection with specific protozoa of the Plasmodium genus. It is transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The malaria parasite undergoes a single sexual cycle in the mosquito and recurrent asexual cycles, with the production of sexual forms (gametocytes) in man. Clinical features: The initial incubation period of malaria is 9-11 days. Malaria symptoms […]

Read more

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Aetiology: Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) first appears as a transient flu-like illness. There then follows a variable period of good health which may last many years. The HIV virus has tropism for lymphocytes expressing CD4 antigen (T helper cells). As the disease progresses there is a steady decline in the number of CD4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. […]

Read more

Infectious Mononucleosis

Aetiology: Infectious Mononucleosis (Glandular Fever), also known as mono, is due to infection by the Ebstein-Barr herpes Virus (EBV). The disease was first described in the 1920s. The virus spreads through saliva, which is why it’s sometimes called “kissing disease“. the incubation period for mono is four to eight weeks. Using contaminated items, such as drinking glasses or toothbrushes, can spread the infection. […]

Read more

Miscellaneous Red Cell Abnormalities

Introduction In the chapter of Miscellaneous Red Cell Abnormalities, we will discuss some of the commonly seen red blood cell abnormalities. Adult human bone marrow synthesizes 4 X 1014 molecules of hemoglobin every second. Heme and globin chains (alpha and beta) in adults are manufactured in separate cell compartments—mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively—and then combined in cytoplasm in an amazingly accurate manner. Four major problems […]

Read more
1 4 5 6 7 8