Spherocytosis

Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) is a disorder of the red cell membrane inherited usually in an autosomal dominant pattern. In this condition, the red cells are more rigid and fragile than normal. They are spherocytic in shape appearing small and deeply stained on blood smears and have osmotic fragility. A normal red blood cell can live for up to 120 days. […]

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Hemolytic Anemias

Introduction: Red blood cells (RBCs) are made in the bone marrow—a sponge-like tissue inside the bones. They live for about 120 days in the bloodstream and then die. Hemolysis involves premature destruction and hence a shortened RBCs life span (< 120 days). When RBCs die, the body’s bone marrow makes more blood cells to replace them. However, in hemolytic anemias, the bone […]

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Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Background: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes. Erythroblasts are virtually absent in bone marrow; however, WBC and platelet production is normal. The anemia due to PRCA is usually normocytic but can be macrocytic. The characteristics of PRCA include a severe anemia, a reticulocyte count <1%, and the […]

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Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged. This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types (pancytopenia): red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leucopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). Aplastic refers to the inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells. Aetiology: Congenital: The […]

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Megaloblastic Anemias

Introduction: Megaloblastic anemias are a group of disorders characterized by reduced DNA synthesis (not just in red cell series) associated with pathognomonic morphological changes. When DNA synthesis is impaired, the cell cycle cannot progress from the G2 growth stage to the mitosis (M) stage. This leads to continuing cell growth without division, which presents as macrocytosis. In other words, megaloblastic anemia […]

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

iron deficiency anemia

Introduction: Iron is a mineral. Most of the iron in the body is found in the hemoglobin of red blood cells and in the myoglobin of muscle cells. Iron is needed for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. It also has other important roles in the body. In people with iron deficiency anemia, the red blood cells can’t carry enough oxygen to […]

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Anemias-General Approach

Anemias-General Approach: Anemia, also spelt anaemia, is a condition in which you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin to carry adequate oxygen to the body’s tissues. When anemia comes on slowly the symptoms are often vague and may include: feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise. Anemia that comes on quickly often […]

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Blood Cells

Blood cells begin their life in the bone marrow as stem cells, and they mature into three main types of cells Red blood cells (RBCs), White blood cells (WBCs), and Platelets. The average human adult has more than 5 liters of blood in his or her body. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to living cells and takes away their waste […]

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Scope of hematology

Hematology is the study of blood, blood forming tissues and organs, and blood disorders. Hematology is practiced by specialists in the field who deal with the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of people with blood disorders ranging from anemia to blood cancer. Because blood runs through every organ and tissue in the body, hematology has an enormous ripple effect extending […]

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What is Hematology?

Hematology is a branch of medicine concerning the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. The word (heme) comes from the Greek for blood. The history of hematology dates back to ancient Egypt and the use of blood-letting tools. A major breakthrough in the study of blood occurred in 1642 when Anthony van Leeuwenhoek built a microscope and identified blood […]

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