Stomatocytosis

Stomatocytes (RBCs with slit-like central pallor) Stomatocytosis is a rare condition of RBCs in which a mouthlike or slitlike pattern replaces the normal central zone of pallor. These cells are associated with congenital and acquired hemolytic anemia. The symptoms result from the anemia. The rare congenital stomatocytosis, which shows autosomal dominant inheritance, causes a severe hemolytic anemia presenting very early […]

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Elliptocytosis

Hereditary Elliptocytosis (HE), also known as ovalocytosis, is a disorder of the red cell membrane inherited usually in an autosomal dominant pattern. In this condition, the majority of cells have an elliptical shape. The osmotic fragility is normal. HE is due to defects in either the structure or quantity of the cytoskeletal proteins responsible for maintaining the biconcave morphology of RBCs. Mutations […]

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Spherocytosis

Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) is a disorder of the red cell membrane inherited usually in an autosomal dominant pattern. In this condition, the red cells are more rigid and fragile than normal. They are spherocytic in shape appearing small and deeply stained on blood smears and have osmotic fragility. A normal red blood cell can live for up to 120 days. […]

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Hemolytic Anemias

Introduction: Red blood cells (RBCs) are made in the bone marrow—a sponge-like tissue inside the bones. They live for about 120 days in the bloodstream and then die. Hemolysis involves premature destruction and hence a shortened RBCs life span (< 120 days). When RBCs die, the body’s bone marrow makes more blood cells to replace them. However, in hemolytic anemias, the bone […]

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Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Background: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes. Erythroblasts are virtually absent in bone marrow; however, WBC and platelet production is normal. The anemia due to PRCA is usually normocytic but can be macrocytic. The characteristics of PRCA include a severe anemia, a reticulocyte count <1%, and the […]

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Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged. This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types (pancytopenia): red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leucopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). Aplastic refers to the inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells. Aetiology: Congenital: The […]

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Megaloblastic Anemias

Introduction: Megaloblastic anemias are a group of disorders characterized by reduced DNA synthesis (not just in red cell series) associated with pathognomonic morphological changes. When DNA synthesis is impaired, the cell cycle cannot progress from the G2 growth stage to the mitosis (M) stage. This leads to continuing cell growth without division, which presents as macrocytosis. In other words, megaloblastic anemia […]

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

iron deficiency anemia

Introduction: Iron is a mineral. Most of the iron in the body is found in the hemoglobin of red blood cells and in the myoglobin of muscle cells. Iron is needed for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. It also has other important roles in the body. In people with iron deficiency anemia, the red blood cells can’t carry enough oxygen to […]

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Anemias-General Approach

Anemias-General Approach: Anemia, also spelt anaemia, is a condition in which you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin to carry adequate oxygen to the body’s tissues. When anemia comes on slowly the symptoms are often vague and may include: feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise. Anemia that comes on quickly often […]

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Blood Cells

Blood cells begin their life in the bone marrow as stem cells, and they mature into three main types of cells Red blood cells (RBCs), White blood cells (WBCs), and Platelets. The average human adult has more than 5 liters of blood in his or her body. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to living cells and takes away their waste […]

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