Malignant Infiltration of Bone Marrow

Many cancers may infiltrate the bone marrow, most common are carcinoma of the lung, breast, prostate, colon, and thyroid. In malignant infiltration of bone marrow, the blood count may be normal although pancytopenia may occur and there may be leukoerythroblastic blood picture. Marrow aspirates may be difficult because of fibrosis and trephine biopsies should also be performed. The features of […]






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Hemolytic Anemias

Mild jaundice in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) Clinical features: Features of anemia (feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath on exertion or a poor ability to exercise). Mild jaundice. Variable degrees of splenomegaly. Occasional leg ulcers in chronic cases. Occasional biliary colic in chronic cases (pigment gallstones). Leg Ulcers with Sickle Cell Anemia and other Hemolytic Anemias Aetiology: The potential causes […]






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Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Bone marrow aspirate showing red cell aplasia Background: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes. Erythroblasts are virtually absent in bone marrow; however, WBC and platelet production is normal. The anemia due to PRCA is usually normocytic but can be macrocytic. The characteristics of PRCA include a severe […]






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Aplastic Anemia

Severe hypoplastic marrow in Aplastic anemia Definition: Aplastic anemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types (pancytopenia): red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leucopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). Aplastic refers to the inability of the stem cells to generate […]






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Megaloblastic Anemias

Introduction: Megaloblastic anemias are a group of disorders characterized by reduced DNA synthesis (not just in red cell series) associated with pathognomonic morphological changes. When DNA synthesis is impaired, the cell cycle cannot progress from the G2 growth stage to the mitosis (M) stage. This leads to continuing cell growth without division, which presents as macrocytosis. The defect in red cell […]






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Iron Deficiency Anemia

Incidence: Over 10% of Western urban populations are iron deficient though not all are anemic. In many other parts of the world, the incidence is still higher. Iron deficiency anemia is particularly common in women of child bearing age. Causes: 1- Poor diet: Foods rich in iron include: Red meat. Poultry. Seafood. Beans. Dark green leafy vegetables, such as spinach. […]






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Anemias-General Approach

Anemia, also spelt anaemia, is usually defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood. It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. When anemia comes on slowly the symptoms are often vague and may include: feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability […]






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