Hodgkin’s Disease

PET Scan

Hodgkin’s Disease (Hodgkin Lymphoma) is a malignant neoplasm that usually arises in a lymph node. It results from the clonal transformation of cells of B-cell origin, giving rise to pathognomonic binucleated Reed-Sternberg cells (RS cells). The nature of the malignant RS cell remains uncertain. Clonally integrated Epstein-Barr virus is present in the RS cells in about 40% of cases. The cause […]






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Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia

large granular lymphocytic leukemia

Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) Leukemia is an uncommon condition also described as CD8 lymphocytosis with neutropenia or T-lymphoproliferative disease. The peripheral blood lymphocytosis is composed of cells with round or oval nuclei with moderately condensed chromatin and rare nucleoli, eccentrically placed in the abundant pale blue cytoplasm with azurophilic granules. LGLs comprise 10 to 15 percent of normal peripheral blood […]






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Hairy Cell Leukemia

Hairy Cell Leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an indolent, low-grade, B-cell lymphoma characterized by the following: Circulating B-cells with cytoplasmic projections (“hairy” appearance). Splenomegaly. Absent lymphadenopathy. Pancytopenia. Monocytopenia. Hairy cell leukemia is relatively uncommon and accounts for 2% of all leukemia cases, which is about 600-800 new patients diagnosed each year in the USA. It has an extremely low incidence in Japan. The […]






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Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Blood Film

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a low-grade lymphoproliferative malignancy in which there is a proliferation of small mature lymphocytes (almost always B cells) in the blood, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. CLL is the most common type of leukemia in the Western world. Clinical Features: CLL occurs mainly in the elderly; 75% of cases are diagnosed in patients > 60 […]






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Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute Myeloid Leukemia - Auer Rods

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a malignant proliferation of myeloblasts in the blood and bone marrow. The hematopoietic precursors are arrested in an early stage of development. Most AML subtypes are distinguished from other related blood disorders by the presence of more than 20% blasts in the bone marrow. The disease is commonest in the middle-aged and elderly. Clinical Features: Although the onset […]






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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is a malignant proliferation of lymphoblasts in the blood and bone marrow. The disease is usually rapidly progressive if untreated. The incidence of ALL peaks in childhood and then remains relatively constant at lower levels throughout adult life. Two-thirds of all ALL cases occur in children, with a peak incidence at age 2 to 5 years; […]






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Mycosis Fungoides

erythematous plaques in advancing mycosis fungoides

Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sezary Cell Leukemia (SCL) are related T-cell cutaneous lymphoma/leukemia. Clinical Features: Mycosis Fungoides is an uncommon chronic T-cell lymphoma primarily affecting the skin and occasionally the internal organs. The disease is most common in middle-aged men. There are eczematous lesions, plaques, tumors and ulcers of the skin without overt blood involvement. In the late stages, the […]






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Primary Myelofibrosis

Primary Myelofibrosis - BM Reticulin Stain

Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, and anemia with nucleated and teardrop-shaped RBCs. The spleen is often very large. Myelofibrosis may be primary or secondary to a number of hematologic, malignant, and nonmalignant conditions e.g. PRV, ET, hairy cell leukemia, cancer with bone marrow metastases, osteomyelitis and TB. PMF is more common than […]






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Essential Thrombocythemia

Essential Thrombocythemia-BM

Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by sustained megakaryocyte proliferation with excessive platelet production due to a clonal abnormality of a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell. Platelet survival is normal in ET. Approximately one-third of patients with ET is asymptomatic at diagnosis. ET usually occurs with bimodal peaks of between ages 50 and 70 years and a separate peak among […]






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Polycythemia Rubra Vera

PRV

Polycythemia Rubra Vera (PRV) or Primary Polycythemia Vera is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by an increase in RBC mass, which often manifests as an increased hematocrit (Hct). There is a malignant transformation of the multipotential stem cell with excess production of red cells. PRV involves increased production of all cell lines, including RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. Polycythaemia Rubra Vera […]






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