Checkpoint Inhibitors

checkpoint-inhibitors

An important part of the immune system is its ability to tell between normal cells in the body and those it sees as “foreign”. This lets the immune system attack the foreign cells while leaving the normal cells alone. Unfortunately, immune system doesn’t always recognize cancer as a threat. Immune system uses “checkpoints” – molecules on certain immune cells that need […]






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Malignant Infiltration of Bone Marrow

mri-abnormal-bm-signal

Many cancers may infiltrate the bone marrow, most common are carcinoma of the lung, breast, prostate, colon, and thyroid. In malignant infiltration of bone marrow, the blood count may be normal although pancytopenia may occur and there may be leukoerythroblastic blood picture. Marrow aspirates may be difficult because of fibrosis and trephine biopsies should also be performed. The features of […]






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Cold Agglutinin Disease

Cold Agglutinin Disease

Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare disorder affecting 15% of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The disease is defined by the presence of cold agglutinins (autoantibodies which are active at temperatures below 30°C). Cold agglutinins cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) at low temperatures. Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) occurs more frequently after the age of 55. Clinical […]






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Cryoglobulinemia

cryoglobulinemia

Cryoglobulins are single or mixed immunoglobulins which precipitate when they are exposed to cold and dissolve when warmed. They may be present in small quantities in the blood of some healthy people but are most frequently associated with abnormal protein production in a variety of diseases and conditions. Precipitated cryoglobulins can slow the flow of blood and block small blood vessels. This should […]






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Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia

Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia

Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma is an indolent B-cell malignancy in which there is a proliferation of small lymphocytes with some plasmacytoid differentiation. The disease is clinically more similar to a lymphomatous disease than to myeloma and other plasma cell disorders. Waldenström macroglobulinemia is one of the malignant Monoclonal Gammopathies. There is usually massive production of monoclonal IgM. […]






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Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving malignant monoclonal proliferation of lymphoid cells in lymphoreticular sites, including lymph nodes, bone marrow, the spleen, the liver, and the GI tract. Most Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are B-cell neoplasms though occasionally they are of T-cell lineage. These tumors may result from chromosomal translocations, infections, environmental factors, immunodeficiency states, and chronic […]






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Hodgkin’s Disease

PET Scan

Hodgkin’s Disease (Hodgkin Lymphoma) is a malignant neoplasm that usually arises in a lymph node. It results from the clonal transformation of cells of B-cell origin, giving rise to pathognomonic binucleated Reed-Sternberg cells (RS cells). The nature of the malignant RS cell remains uncertain. Clonally integrated Epstein-Barr virus is present in the RS cells in about 40% of cases. The cause […]






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Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia

large granular lymphocytic leukemia

Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) Leukemia is an uncommon condition also described as CD8 lymphocytosis with neutropenia or T-lymphoproliferative disease. The peripheral blood lymphocytosis is composed of cells with round or oval nuclei with moderately condensed chromatin and rare nucleoli, eccentrically placed in the abundant pale blue cytoplasm with azurophilic granules. LGLs comprise 10 to 15 percent of normal peripheral blood […]






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Hairy Cell Leukemia

Hairy Cell Leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an indolent, low-grade, B-cell lymphoma characterized by the following: Circulating B-cells with cytoplasmic projections (“hairy” appearance). Splenomegaly. Absent lymphadenopathy. Pancytopenia. Monocytopenia. Hairy cell leukemia is relatively uncommon and accounts for 2% of all leukemia cases, which is about 600-800 new patients diagnosed each year in the USA. It has an extremely low incidence in Japan. The […]






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Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Blood Film

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a low-grade lymphoproliferative malignancy in which there is a proliferation of small mature lymphocytes (almost always B cells) in the blood, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. CLL is the most common type of leukemia in the Western world. Clinical Features: CLL occurs mainly in the elderly; 75% of cases are diagnosed in patients > 60 […]






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